NL 50 CBETA
by Capt Richard Teo
This grant provided for the continuation of the first CPD workshop completed in 2014. The workshop in 2014 identified the gaps in the maritime education and training (MET) and the administration in the certification and issuance of Certificates of Competency, in accordance with the IMO-STCW convention, national qualifications and licensing. This attained one of the initiatives from the Fisher Report (2013), an Asian Development Bank (ADB) funded project that investigated the situation and state of MET in the Asia Pacific that was current at that time. It provided a fresh platform from which the learning groups in the workshop would return to their various institutes and work on their curriculum (competency based approach to supersede pure knowledge based methods) to address the gaps in MET with the Phillipines Maritime Authority (MARINA) and its associated bodies in MET and administration. The outcomes were successfully presented at the 2014 Manning & Training Conference as a Q&A session with the workshop team leaders. However the participants had not progressed beyond this point and the proposed changes in learning and assessment strategies within the standardised competency based approach curriculum had not taken off as a national prerogative.
This new series for CPD in support of last year’s workshop, main theme and outcome concentrated on Learning & Assessment strategies that would satisfy the OBE and CBETA dimensions of curriculum, certification and licensing. This was advertised successfully through the GlobalMET newsletters and from E-blasts to members and interested persons and organisations.
The period 1 to 11 September consisted of two, 5 day workshops facilitated back to back in Manila at the premises of the Maritime Academy of the Asia Pacific (MAAP), graciously hosted by the VADM Eduardo Ma Santos, the President of MAAP. Due to the cancellation and postponement of the 1st intended workshop to 1 Sept from August, some modifications to delivery of the events were made to accommodate the first and second workshops back to back to suit the allocated dates.
The first workshop attracted 16 participants and the second, 20. They came from institutes as far away as Zamboanga. There were several heads of schools, institutes, faculties and training centres. Each group were tasked with producing sample curriculums that would have been tested and trialled for presentation in early November (Phase 2 of each workshop) and then to GlobalMET
Workshop – Phase 1 Proceedings
Two Phase 1 workshops were “team – facilitated” back to back as follows:
♦ No. 1 Workshop from 1 September to 5th September with 16 participants Facilitators – Capt Richard Teo (lead) and Dr Chris Haughton (Co)
♦ No. 2 Workshop from 7 September to 11 September with 20 participants Facilitators – Capt Richard Teo (lead) and Dr Angelica Baylon (Co)
Method of Facilitation and Delivery
Both workshops were delivered by adult learning principles (andragogy), mainly learner –centred, participative enquiry and action reflection learning methods. Pre Workshop reading and learning materials were given two weeks before commencement. The participants were given opportunities to self-direct, and selfmanage their learning under the guidance of the facilitators with a comfortable human-centred approach, embracing OBE and CBETA. Participants were also led into an action-research modus operandi to discover data, information, ideas and resolve issue and problems as they emerged.
Each group from workshop 1 and 2 elected Group Chairs and office bearers to present their product to GlobalMET and if available to Crew Connect 2015. Group leaders have been tasked to work with each other to ensure success. Issues and Problems Resolved The Phillipines MET system as presented by the Commissioner of Higher Education (CHED) is OBE based. A handbook for the adoption and operation of OBE was published in 2014. Issues and problems resolved by the participants were:
♦ OBE was not fully understood by training providers and administration. Clarification was provided and participants realised the similarity between OBE and CBETA
◊ This OBE was satisfactorily mapped with the STCW and competency based learning to ensure that performance based criteria (Criterion referenced assessments) for standards and competences were in place.
◊ Delivery of training programmes or courses would be competency based, applying andragogical (adult) delivery encouraging double loop learning through learner-centred methodology.
♦ The MET system in the Phillipines were segregated with Training Centres for ratings and Colleges/Polytechnics/ Institutes of higher learning for Cadets and Officers training. Training Centres had already adopted a full CBETA system and regulated through TESDA, whilst the latter groups were CHED biased and regulated through MARINA-CHED offices.
♦ It was most satisfying to observe how the participants came to terms with the issues and problems by sharing ideas and collaborating to resolve them. The right people came together.
*Note: It was interesting to note that TESDA had already adopted the Australian Training Package for Maritime operations.
Preparation and conduct of Phase 2
A supportive mentoring and surveillance workshop will be conducted in early November to finalise the groups’ findings and products. Each group will then present to GlobalMET members and Board on the 10th of November ahead of Crew Connect 2015 from 11 to 13 November.
Issues and Problems that emerged during the two workshops provided a better insight into the difficulties to implement competency based approach delivery of learning and assessment strategies in a learning environment that had to produce job-ready officers from graduates of higher education that had not successfully navigated through the hazards of mixing academic learning with competency based – performance based to standards. Key issues were:
♦ Higher education demands time-based delivery face to face within strict regimen confines on an almost pure rote and memory system of learning and regurgitation by written examinations for student evaluation. As a rule, almost entirely teacher-centred delivery and pedagogy.
♦ CHED’s typology for OBE has introduced Adult learning (andragogy) and the manner in which learning and teaching in accordance with CBETA takes place. CBETA previously nonexistent is a shift in paradigm that has met substantial resistance despite the STCW being a standards and competency based framework.
♦ Learning Outcomes are goal based (standards or competence based) and confused with learning objectives which are subject based. These subject based as learning objectives had little or no reference to rules of assessment methodology and tools that collected suitable evidence to confirm competence of standards per STCW.
♦ Assessment rubrics were too credited with marks and gradings instead of rubrics that reflect a criterion referenced
♦ There were no designated nor agreed national standards and competences published as part of the standards for training and certification. The STCW provides a framework that does not prescribe details but leaves it to administrations to expand on the basic minimum per the code. This has not happened constructively despite several policy notices (resolutions) from MARINA.
♦ Suggested mapping of competences has been issued by CHED but not all institutions have similar copies.
♦ Communications between regulators and MET providers continue to be poor with fear of misunderstandings and repercussions especially with Government institutions. This was well expressed by heads and other participants who attended.
♦ Mind sets and culture blocks were the main causes of resistance and inability to participate in the paradigm shift.
It is worthwhile to note that the participants of the two workshops were very proactive and eager to get their organisations into OBE modus operandi. Generally participants for each workshop worked well as a cohesive group in a learning environment that empowered them to question and think and work critically across borders and comfort zones to produce the learned outcomes. This gave them ownership of their work.
The detailed analysis is not ready for inclusion at this time but it suffices to say that both Phase 1 workshops attained its programme objectives and the learning outcomes that enabled participants to fully provide for MET using OBE and CBETA in their institutions.
The workshop was designed for a 5 day intensive participative seminar, followed by a 2nd phase for mentoring and surveillance of work completed for submission to MARINA-CHED as the proposed learning and assessment strategies for an OBE – CBETA curriculum. This curriculum would then uplift the Phillipines MET industry to standards in accordance with the STCW convention and beyond. This would not only support the lucrative mariners supply market but also the greater Human Resources – Capital industry with similar OBE-CBETA training and development of personnel.
However, a full 5 day programme disrupts people from their daily functional roles and can develop negative attributes which such a programme actually hopes to resolve in the job arenas. It is suggested that future CPD be redesigned for two intensive days followed by a one day mentoring and surveillance workshop. I believe that this will attract more participants and also alleviate the extreme pressure each participant endures from being away from their respective work places. Economics of the Training & Development Plan (TDP) will be strategized to offer maximum participation and outcomes in selected periods of time.
Capt Richard Teo (Programme design and Lead facilitator)
Dr Chris Haughton (Co facilitator for 1st session)
Dr. Prof. Angelica Baylon (Co-Facilitator for second session and programme administrator for both)